03 – The all-inclusive set

Figure 3 – set C – represents the existence of a non-hierarchical underlying reality. There exists no fundamental difference between the objects – like set A and set B – and the surroundings of these objects. In other words, when I imagine that I move my arm through space it is the underlying reality that forms my moving arm from point to point.

03.pngfigure 3
There is another essential aspect: the reality of figure 3 envelopes an all-inclusive volume. In addition, we have to conclude that this volume can not be totally homogeneous. Because in daily reality we observe different properties between phenomena. So we have to conclude that the all-inclusive volume must have an internal structure. This implies that the underlying reality – that forms all the phenomena in the universe – is an all-inclusive mathematical set, consisting of elements.

Conclusion: there exists no volume in the universe that does not consist of one or more elements.

An element has two kinds of properties: invariant properties and variable properties. When every element only has variable properties, the law of conservation of energy and physical constants like Planck’s constant cannot exist.

Conclusion: each element must have at least one invariant property.

At the level of the micro cosmos, we cannot detect differences between the proportions of the same phenomena under equal physical conditions. For this reason, it is not logical to conclude that the volume of each element ought to be a variable property. Thus, the quantity of the volume of each element has to be identical.

An identical quantity of the volume of each element does not indicate that each element has an identical size of the surface area. Because daily reality shows that everything in the universe is altering continuously. This observation rules out the possibility that every element is static. Therefore, the surface area of each element is variable and has the ability to deform.


  • Each element has an invariant volume.
  • The quantity of volume of every element is identical.
  • The surface area of an element is deformable.

Unfortunately, the named properties of each element do not explain why all the phenomena in the universe alter continuously. Thus every element must have an unknown property that is responsible for all the observed alterations.

All the phenomena do have volume and all the phenomena alter with respect to each other. These properties – mentioned above – are observed everywhere in the universe. However, there is still another widely observed phenomenal property in the universe: the domination of the spherical shape everywhere in the cosmos.

In view of this, we can draw the following conclusions:

  • The universe is an all-inclusive set of elements.
  • Every element has identical properties.
  • The volume and surface area of each element within the all-inclusive set is the result of an internal – spherical shape forming – mechanism.

Despite of the logic behind the concept of figure D there remains a dubiety, which is hard to ignore. The description of the underlying reality as a mathematical set, which is composed of elements with identical properties, seems far too easy in relation to the multiplicity of all the observed phenomena in the universe. Therefore, in the next chapters some explanation about the functioning of this mathematical set.

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